Polycystic Ovary Disease (PCOD) an overview



Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOD) or PCOS is a hormonal disorder that affects teenage girls and women. It affects about 7 out of 10 women of childbearing age and is the most common cause of infertility. The main feature of PCOD is the origin of the name “PCOD” and that not all women diagnosed with the disease have polycystic ovaries.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which ovaries produce abnormal amounts of androgens (male sex hormones), which can be present in small amounts in some women. The name polycystic ovarian syndrome describes the numerous small cysts and fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovary. Some women with PCOS do not have cysts, but they can develop cysts. 

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that affects a woman’s hormone levels. In women with PCOS, there is a hormonal imbalance that disrupts the normal reproductive process. It usually begins during puberty and is associated with irregular periods and other hormone-related symptoms. 

PCOS affects the female ovary, the reproductive organs that produce estrogen and progesterone, hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle. Hormone imbalances can cause women with PCOS to skip menstruation, making it harder for them to get pregnant. PCOS problems with hormones can affect women of childbearing age (15 to 44 years). 

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frustrating experience for women, a complicated one for doctors to deal with and a scientific challenge for researchers. Women with PCOS have abnormalities in the metabolism of androgens and estrogen, which control androgen production. Given the progress of PCOS research, it is crucial that scientific knowledge is translated into knowledge and measures for women by health professionals and policymakers. 

PCOS is one of the most common causes of female infertility and affects between 6-12% and up to 5 million US women of reproductive age. PCOS was found to affect 28% of non-selected obese women and 5% of slim women (5-8). In 2006, based on low-prevalence US data, the estimated economic burden of PCOS in Australia was AU $400 million annually due to menstrual disorders (31%), infertility (12%), PCOS-associated diabetes (40%), and total health and economic costs.

Women with PCOS have a high proportion of androgens (male hormones in women) that stop the release of eggs during ovulation, resulting in irregular periods, acne, thinning of the scalp and excessive hair growth on the face and body. They cannot ovulate due to high androgen levels and have many small cysts on their ovaries. They are also insulin resistant – their body produces insulin but does not use it properly, increasing their risk of type 2 diabetes. 

PCOS can also lead to missed or irregular menstrual periods, excessive hair growth, acne, infertility, and weight gain. Women with PCOS have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart problems, and cervical cancer than other women. With a combination of type 2 diabetes mellitus, low HDL (good cholesterol) and high LDL levels (triglycerides, the bad cholesterol in the blood), and fat, women who suffer from PCOS may suffer a higher risk of heart disease or stroke themselves. 

Women with PCOS who are overweight or obese may also develop what is known as obstructive sleep apnea, in which breathing stops during sleep. This condition worsens insulin resistance and cardiovascular problems in women with PCOS. 

Women with PCOS have elevated levels of inflammation in their body. They believe excessive inflammation is due to factors such as genes for insulin resistance and high levels of inflammation in the body. Adolescent women with PCO have a higher risk of depression and anxiety.

Women with PCOS who are overweight may experience pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes, premature birth, and pre-eclampsia. The exact cause of PCOS is unknown, and there may be more than one cause, and these causes may be different for each individual girl or woman. 

It is estimated that between five and ten percent of US women of childbearing age have PCOS. That is about 5 million women, making PCOS one of the most common hormonal and endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. Many women with PCOS have cysts on their ovaries, but they don’t always have a cyst. 

According to the PCOS Foundation, fewer than half of women are diagnosed with PCOS, meaning millions of women are unaware of their condition. The foundation estimates that PCOS causes fertility problems up to 70 percent of the time in women who have problems with ovulation. More than half of the affected women develop type 2 diabetes before the age of 40.

Research has shown that women with PCOS have low inflammation, which stimulates the polycystic ovary to produce androgens. Tests and diagnosis No single test can detect the presence of PCOS, but doctors can diagnose PCOS with a medical history and physical examination, including a pelvic exam and blood tests that measure hormones, cholesterol and glucose levels. 

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women in the United States that affects about 7% of patients. Problems with PCOS include an increased risk of infertility, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, as well as a higher risk of developing cervical cancer at a young age. Sources: 0, 9

Metabolic syndrome is more common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome or disease than in the general population and patients with this disease are four times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus than the general population. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex, with no known defect of the disease, but insulin resistance is believed to be a key factor.

About half of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are overweight or obese, which increases the risk of fatty liver disease. Many women with the syndrome also have elevated insulin levels, a hormone that helps control blood sugar levels. By the age of 40, approximately 10 percent of obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome develop high blood glucose levels and type 2 diabetes and about 35 percent develop Pre-diabetes (high or normal blood glucose levels that do not meet the threshold for diabetes ). 

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