What is an Olecranon Process and olecranon fracture ?

 

Olecranon process

The Olecranon process is the process of the ulna that forms the outer bump of the elbow and fits into the fossa of the humerus when the arm is extended. olecranon. appendage, outgrowth, process – a natural prolongation or projection from a part of an organism either animal or plant; “a bony process

An olecranon fracture is a fracture of the pointed bone of the elbow that protrudes when the arm is bent and ends in the ulna. This type of fracture is caused when a direct hit to the elbow lands on the elbow. It can break if you experience the impact of a fall with an outstretched arm.

Olecranon fractures may occur as a result of direct hits (fall to the elbow), direct impact with an object, or indirect impact. This type of fracture is more common and can occur either in isolation from other injuries or as part of a complex elbow injury.

Olecranon fractures are the most common fractures due to the subcutaneous position of the olecranon at the tip of the elbow. It lies under the skin and is, therefore, more susceptible to direct trauma.

The coronoid process of the olecranon is a form of articular surface articulation of the trochlea. It is a beak-like structure with a curved oleaginous fossa and an elbow extension.

The olecranon is located at the proximal end of the ulna, one of the two bones of the forearm. It is bent forward at the top and features a prominent lip, which is absorbed into the olefin fossa of the humerus during elbow stretching.

The olecranon is the region of the proximal Ulna that extends to the coronoid process from the tip of the Ulna. Its base contracts when it connects to the body and is the narrowest part of the upper end of the ulna.

An important segment of the ulna bone, the largest of the two bones in the forearm, is located at the proximal end of the bone, where it cuts through the humerus. It is a prominent bony projection of the ulna bone that can be felt at the elbow. It is a structure that arches around the lower part of the humerus with a hook-like shape and encloses the elbow joint. 

An olecranon fracture of olecranon process fracture is a fracture in which a large curved eminence, the so-called olecranon process, forms at the site of the elbow. Olecranons range from simple, non-staggered fractures to complex fractures and dislocations of the elbow joint. The olecranon is part of the ulna bone and forms the topmost posterior aspect of the bone.

Olecranon fractures are the most common injury and account for 10% of all upper limb fractures in adults. They account for about 10% of all elbow fractures in adults and are less common in children. They are the result of a direct impact on the proximal ulna, a severe contraction of the triceps, or resistance to a fall from an outstretched hand. 

A supracondylar fracture of the humerus is considered when a child falls on a semi-bent arm and suffers a direct blow to the elbow. A Monteggia fracture (fracture of the proximal third of the Ulna due to dislocation of the head or radius) is produced by the same mechanism as an olecranial fracture and can be detected on anteroposterior, lateral and oblique X-rays of the elbow, including shaft and ulna. 

The bursa is susceptible to injuries caused by acute trauma and repeated microtrauma. Radial head fractures and fractures of the coronoid process can lead to elbow instability, which can complicate olecranon fractures. Olecranons bursitis can develop due to repeated irritation of the bursa due to trauma or infection. 

Three main anatomical features remind you how to treat olecranial fractures. Firstly, it is the place where the triceps muscle is inserted, the effect of which tends to be displaced by fractures. 

The aim of surgical treatment is to restore the stretching mechanism of the elbow by reconstructing the joint surface. The excision of the proximal bony fragment of the triceps is used as the primary treatment of olecranon fractures. Anatomical restoration of the joint surface and stable fixation of the fracture are necessary to enable early elbow surgery, prevent stiffness and maximize the use of the injured limb. 

The Mayo classification system for olecranon fractures is based on the displacement of the olecranon, crushing and elbow stability. The management of these fractures depends on these factors.

This study investigated the functional morphology of the olecranon process in hominoids and fossil hominins. The results showed that Homo pangorillas and most of the monkeys and Australopithecus fossils studied were similar relative to the length of oleanders. 

Buijze and Kloen investigated the effectiveness of single-grain screws and contoured interlocked pressure plates. One study examined the results of 18 patients who underwent blocked plate osteosynthesis and an open reduction of crushed olecranon fractures. The results indicate that the risk of restricted elbow movement was higher with concurrent injury, and that blocked plates are another successful option for fixation of oleaginous fractures. 

Distal binding of the proximal olecranon to the processes of the ulna and forearm fascia. The proximal attachment to the triceps consists of a long head that attaches to the infraglenoid tubercle of the shoulder blade, a lateral head that attaches to the radial grooves of the posterior humerus and a medial head that attaches the posterior humerus to the distal radial groove. The anconeus, an important valgus load stabilizer, attaches the lateral epicodylus to the lateral olecondylus at the posterior ulna.

The distal humerus has a cylindrical trochlea that fits into the trochar notch of the ulna. The coronoid process of the volar ulna deepens the notch to enhance articulation. 

The olecranon process is a rectangular extension of the ulna that satisfies the posterior humerus’s hollow where it is a Fossa (example) of the elbow. Taut, the triceps snap into the olfactory cranium, with the lower end of the humerus acting as a pivot point. 

Injuries to elbow elongation caused by violent throws are a common cause of olecranon fractures. Falls from the elbow or direct blows to the elbow can also lead to an olecranon fracture.



3 thoughts on “What is an Olecranon Process and olecranon fracture ?”

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